The commercial production of oil palm can be maintained for 25 years, oil palm is the most productive oil-producing plants in the world, nursery cultivation of brown seedlings, one year can be transplanted soil after germination, 138 palm trees per hectare, annual output is 20-25 tons palm fruit/hectare, after 2-3 years, starts to grow fruit, enters into season with 8-15 years old, enters mature period in 18-20 years old, then the production decreases, during this period, needs to stop the re-picking process, the workers can pick 60-70 fruits per day at most, it has about 2000-3000 pieces fruit of each bunch, 10-12 bunches of each tree, 20-30kg of each bunch, it has twice harvest period in a year. The oil content is about 28-30% for each tree.
First in palm oil, the formation of acid is due to palm oil in the lipase or fatty acid catalase in any of the two hydrolysis caused. Under normal circumstances, the free fatty acids of palm oil are generally higher, which is mainly due to the lipase in palm fruits to promote the oil in the hydrolysis, but unbroken palm fruit is with less free fatty acids.
Second, in the undamaged palm fruit, the free fatty acid is very low, but once the palm fruit flesh cells are damaged, the fruit lipase happens activation, in the early free fatty acid will rise sharply.
Third, the late free fatty acids rise and slow down until the lipase activity passivation can be stopped.
The free fatty acid content in palm oil depends on three factors.
1.The maturity of the fruit (too mature fruit is easy to damage);
2.The degree of early pretreatment (bactericidal) reached;
3.As well as the time between harvest and lipase passivation, the shorter time, the free fatty acid content is lower.
The sterilization of palm fruits not only prevents the hydrolysis of lipase, but also softens the fruit, so that the fruit can easily fall off from the bunch, easy to mash. Palm fruit sterilization mainly has the following purposes:
A, Break the palm fruit in the pulp tissue lipase activity;
B, The fruit is easy to separate fruit bunch, the fruit becomes soft and easy to mash, increase the fruit humidity, oil comes out easily;
C, To prevent the decomposition of enzymes in palm flesh, so as to avoid free fatty acid content increased;
D, But also to make it easy to separate the core shell;
After the palm nuts enter the sterilizter, close the sterilizter door
Open the exhaust valve below the sterilizter, to remove the cool air from the tank and allow the saturated steam at a pressure of 3 bar (about 145 ° C)
After discharge the cool air, close the exhaust valve, at the sterilization stage, the sterilization time is generally 90 to 120 minutes.
After the completion of the sterilization, close the inlet valve, open the valve to the silencer, the tank of water and steam exhausted before you can open the door of the sterilization tank.